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Potassium Nitrate

Potassium nitrate ;is a chemical compound. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3?, and is, therefore, an alkali metal nitrate. It occurs in nature as a mineral, niter (or niter in the UK). It is a source of nitrogen, and nitrogen was named after niter. Potassium nitrate is one of several nitrogen-containing compounds collectively referred to as saltpeter (or saltpeter in North America).

Major uses of potassium nitrate are in fertilizers, tree stump removal, rocket propellants, and fireworks. It is one of the major constituents of gunpowder (black powder). In processed meats, potassium nitrate reacts with hemoglobin and myoglobin generating a red color. Potassium nitrate has an orthorhombic crystal structure at room temperature, which transforms into a trigonal system at 129 °C (264 °F).

Potassium nitrate is moderately soluble in water, but its solubility increases with temperature. The aqueous solution is almost neutral, exhibiting pH 6.2 at 14 °C (57 °F) for a 10% solution of commercial powder. It is not very hygroscopic, absorbing about 0.03% water in 80% relative humidity over 50 days. It is insoluble in alcohol and is not poisonous; it can react explosively with reducing agents, but it is not explosive on its own.

Foods High in Nitrates

Nitrates are a set of compounds that involve nitrogen and oxygen molecules. While they are often associated with cured meats, green, leafy vegetables are actually much richer in nitrates.

While the association of nitrate with cured meats causes some to worry about their cancer-causing effects, other studies show that the nitrates found in vegetables may actually help reduce the risk of cancer. Studies suggest that eating foods rich in natural nitrates can help reduce your risk of a number of chronic health conditions, whereas eating foods high in added nitrates can cause health risks.

Why You Should Avoid Nitrates

Nitrates on their own are not broken down by stomach acid. Instead, your gut biome can break down nitrate into nitrite, which can cause health complications such as an increased risk of cancer. ;

Nitrate is an inorganic, water-soluble chemical. Your body makes around 62 milligrams (mg) of nitrites a day, but the majority of nitrates come from your diet. On average a person living in the United States consumes 75 to 100 mg of nitrates a day.

Many processed types of meat are high in nitrates. While these nitrates are useful for preserving and improving the color of food, they are not good for your health. Many studies recommend that vitamin C be added to cured meats high in nitrates to prevent the formation of harmful nitrite compounds.

Barium Chloride

What is Barium Chloride?

Barium Chloride ;is the inorganic compound with the formula BaCl2. It is one of the most common water-soluble salts of barium. Like other barium salts, it is toxic and imparts a yellow-green coloration to a flame. It is also hygroscopic.

How is it used?

Barium Chloride Dihydrate is used in wastewater treatment, the production of PVC stabilizers, oil lubricants, barium chromate, and barium fluoride. As an inexpensive, soluble salt of barium, Barium Chloride finds wide application in the laboratory. It is commonly used as a test for sulfate ions. In industry, Barium Chloride is mainly used in the purification of brine solution in caustic chlorine plants and also in the manufacture of heat treatment salts, case hardening of steel, the manufacture of pigments, and the manufacture of other barium salts. Barium Chloride is also used in fireworks to give a bright green color. However, its toxicity limits its applicability.

Barium Hydroxide - Ba(OH)2

What is Barium Hydroxide?

Barium hydroxide ;is also called baryta with the formula Ba(OH)2. It is a clear white powder with no odor. It is poisonous in nature. It is ionic in nature, for example, Ba(OH)2 (barium hydroxide) in an aqueous solution can provide two hydroxide ions per molecule. Barium hydroxide is the only reagent described for metalizing carboxamidesBarium hydroxide was less degradative as compared to barium oxide.

Uses of Barium hydroxide – Ba(OH)2

Barium hydroxide forms a strong caustic base in an aqueous solution. It has many uses, e.g., as a test for sulfides; in pesticides; in the manufacture of alkali and glass.

Use of barium hydroxide lime rather than soda-lime, high sevoflurane concentration, high absorbent temperature, and fresh absorbent use. Used in the manufacture of alkalis, glass, oil and grease additives, barium soaps, and other barium compounds.

Health Hazard

Inhalation of barium dust can cause irritation of the nose and upper respiratory tract and may produce benign pneumoconiosis known as baritosis.

Barium ions are toxic to muscles especially the heart, producing stimulation and then paralysis.

It is an extremely dangerous neurotoxin. Adverse effects may result in effects on the heart and the function of the central nervous system (CNS).

Ammonium Sulfate

Ammonium sulfate ;is an inorganic salt with a number of commercial uses. The most common use is as a soil fertilizer. It contains 21% nitrogen and 24% sulfur.

The primary use of ammonium sulfate is as a fertilizer for alkaline soils. In the soil the ammonium ion is released and forms a small amount of acid, lowering the pH balance of the soil, while contributing essential nitrogen for plant growth. The main disadvantage to the use of ammonium sulfate is its low nitrogen content relative to ammonium nitrate, which elevates transportation costs.

It is also used as an agricultural spray adjuvant for water-soluble insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. There, it functions to bind iron and calcium cations that are present in both well water and plant cells. It is particularly effective as an adjuvant for 2,4-D (amine), glyphosate, and glufosinate herbicides.

As a food additive, ammonium sulfate is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and in the European Union, it is designated by the E number E517. It is used as an acidity regulator in flours and bread.

A basic guide to water soluble fertilizers.

Water soluble fertilizers ;are fertilizers that can be dissolved in water and added or leached out of the soil easily. With water soluble fertilizers it is easy to control the precise amount of nutrients available to your plants(the control is more exact with soilless mixes).

Soluble fertilizers usually have N-P-K numbers listed on their label. The numbers listed are not always the exact percentages, they are an indication of the smallest percentage that the fertilizer contains the listed element. The reason for this is that companies do not want their competitors to know the exact amount of nutrients they have in their products, so they list the lowest levels their product might contain to thwart any copying of their secret growing compounds. The N is for nitrogen, the P is for phosphorus and the K is for potassium or potash. Of the 16(12 of which are contained in water soluble fertilizers) known elements necessary for plant life, N-P-K, are the three that are of the most important and always listed on water soluble fertilizers, in that order(except Eco-Grow, which lists N-K-P). ;

Trace elements are vital to chlorophyll formation and must be present in minute amounts. Little is known about the exact amounts needed. They function mainly as a catalyst to plant processes and the utilization of other elements.

The ultimate goal of fertilizing is to supply your plant with the right amount of nutrients, yet, at the same time not toxifying the soil via over-fertilization. Once a plant is placed into a container, with new potting soil, the plant will have enough nutrients to last about a month and will then need to be fertilized for continued growth. Fertilizers are in mass abundance and it should be no trouble locating one in a retail garden center that fits your plant type. The directions for usage, given on the products label, should be followed accordingly to achieve maximum results with your plants.

Potassium carbonate

Potassium carbonate ;is the inorganic compound with the formula K2CO3. It is a white salt, which is soluble in water. It is deliquescent, often appearing as a damp or wet solid. Potassium carbonate is mainly used in the production of soap and glass.

It is not suitable for acidic compounds but can be useful for drying an organic phase if one has a small amount of acidic impurity. It may also be used to dry some ketones, alcohols, and amines prior to distillation.

In cuisine, where it has many traditional uses. It is an ingredient in the production of grass jelly, food consumed in Chinese and Southeast Asian cuisines, as well as Chinese hand-pulled noodles and mooncakes. It is also used to tenderize tripe. German gingerbread recipes often use potassium carbonate as a baking agent, although in combination with hartshorn. The use of potassium carbonate must be limited to a certain amount to prevent harm, and should not be used without guidance.

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